Wednesday, 6 August 2014

Legends and History- Tristram and Iseult and Robin Hood

The Swan-Daughter, the second novel in The Daughters of Hastings series was published in July as an e book by Accent Press and it will be published on 11th December as a paperback. The Swan-Daughter is the story of King Harold's youngest daughter, Gunnhild. I write about her here.

Her story is very romantic and like her mother, Edith Swan-Neck's story, parts of it have been the subject of legend. There was even the possibility that she was a model for some of the Breton versions of the Guinevere story. Guinevere did not enter the Arthurian legends until much later on.She was not in the version of the story as given by the early 12th century historian, Geoffrey of Monmouth. Monmouth's stories of King Arthur, the knights and the quest for the Holy Gail were designed to mask the more ghastly events of the first crusade. He was an early 'spin' historian!

Arthur and Guinevere

I researched where I could in Chronicles resourced on the shelves of the Bodleian Library Oxford in order to find concrete information about Gunnhild. I discovered that she really did elope from Wilton Abbey with Count Alan of Richmond (Alain of Brittany) and that she was later involved with his brother, Alan the Black whom I call Niall in the novel. This history is documented by Oderic Vitalis in the early 12th century. Other evidence for the elopement and her relationship with Alan's brother is a correspondence between Gunnhild and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury. This is an archived correspondence in which the Archbishop tells Gunnhild not to live with Count Alan's brother but instead to return to the abbey of Wilton. These sources are the bones, the skeleton of my story The Swan-Daughter. Into this I integrate politics that followed the Conquest of 1066, for instance- The Earls' Rebellion of 1075, Domesday Book 1085 and King William's troubles with his son, Robert which occurred in the late 1070s and again during the 1080s.

Oderic Vitalis wrote about the 11th C, especially The Conquest

I decided to parallel the story of Gunnhild, Niall and Alan in The Swan-Daughter with that of Tristram and Iseult. In the story of Tristram and Iseult, Tristram who later becomes one of King Arthur's knights, kills a dragon and seeks a wife for his uncle Mark of Cornwall. Iseult's maid, either by accident or design depending on the version you read, gives the couple a potion intended for Iseult and King Mark. It would cause them to fall in love at first sight. This leads to a famous literary love triangle and an impossible situation. It leads to many circuitous adventures in true romance tradition.

Tristram and Iseult

Medieval romance was emergent in stories and in song by the end of the eleventh century. These early medieval romance stories were written down in the vernacular Norman French. Romances were long narratives of adventure that combined the real and the improbable. They appeared in Britain a few years after they originated in France, written down in Norman French for the descendents of those barons who had landed with William the Conqueror. Other romance tales were recorded in Occitane, a language of the French south. Troubadours carried this vernacular romance literature from Spain to the court at Aquitaine where they became popular during the first half of the twelfth century.

Medieval romance quickly becomes associated with the notion of chivalry, the rules of knighthood and the idea of setting up 'the lady' as an image of virtue and of love, actually dichotomy since woman was also seen as the temptress, the daughter of Eve. A knightly quality was to fall in love, usually with another's wife and certainly not his own wife. This was unsurprising really in a society where marriages amongst the nobility were arranged and their objective involved the transfer of land. As for 'the lady' who was the subject of such love, she could behave as unobtainable and disdainful as she wished. This love was not sexual but ideal and pure, at least for the most part. The veneration of the lady was tied up with the popular cult of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ, the ideal woman who had a virgin birth. Chapels were dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Flowers were named after her. Pilgrimages were made to shrines dedicated to her. She is always depicted as wearing blue the colour of purity. Gunnhild is no Virgin Mary. Throughout The Swan-Daughter she is haunted by guilt for her love of Count Alan's brother. She becomes Iseult to his Tristram.

One of my favourite versions from TV

An interesting subject of legend who has recently had a resurgence in historical novel form is Robin Hood. My first introduction to Robin Hood was Richard Green blowing his horn through Sherwood Forest's greenwood and calling his band of merrie men to stirring adventures in the 1960s television series Robin Hood. There are six major sources for the legends of Robin Hood, A Geste of Robyn Hood, Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar, Robin and the Monk, Robin Hood and the Potter and The Death of Robin Hood. All of these works were written after the period that is usually ascribed to Robin of Sherwood. His time period appears to run from the last years of the reign of King Henry II around 1185 through the reigns of King Richard I, King John and ends during the reign of Henry III after 1235. In popular legend his death is circa 1247. Some sources do suggest a wider time frame. Local legends spring up about Robin Hood and the majority of these date from 200 years after the core legends were recorded. Unlike Gunnhild's story where there are snippets of her story recorded in chronicles it is difficult to establish the historicity of Robin Hood. It is likely that he was a real man who existed in history and not just in folklore. He is however essentially a legendary character. The following three fabulous writers have taken Robin Hood and turned him into their own successful stories.

Steven McKay's version

Steven A. McKay  The Wolf and the Raven is the second in a series about the outlaw.  These Robin Hood stories are, interestingly, set during the fourteenth century when the legends were first recorded. The books are great fun. I absolutely love them. If, like me, you are a 'Robin' fan read them.

Angus Donald The Rise of Robin Hood  This is the first of a series of which Angus has written four. They are superbly written. I recommend these novels highly for the adventure and the quality of Donald's writing style.
Gritty and Beautiful

Adam Thorpe Hodd  Who was Robin Hood? In the form of a medieval document Thorpe gives us the story of a free spirit and a not very pleasant outlaw. It is literary, superb and well worth reading.
Go to "Hodd" page
A beautiful and clever novel.

Jenny Kane Romancing Robin Hood This one has a heroine who like myself is fascinated by Robin Hood ever since she saw the stories on TV as a girl. She is a successful academic who is supposed to be writing a text book about medieval criminals. She keeps getting drawn into the world she is writing. There is a present day story with a linked love story to engage the reader also. I cannot wait to read this as it promises great fun. It will be released on 5th September but is available on amazon pre order. I love the cover too. Find Jenny Kane here:

Romancing Robin Hood
On my reading list

Finally, I wonder which legends and myths interest you as readers and perhaps writers most of all. Do comment. I have a complementary i tunes download available if you comment here or via my website :

 Do not forget to leave a contact email.


Friday, 30 May 2014

Medieval Women, flowers, sex, motherhood

Medieval woman was constantly reminded of God's will and his divine justice. In fact everyone was, men, women and children. The notion of heaven and hell was very real, so real that, throughout the Middle Ages, churches contained wall paintings reminding the people, rich and poor, of Heaven's blessings and Hell's terrors. Women during this period were classified according to their sexual status. They were virgins, wives or widows and they were, of course, also mothers.

Church Wall Paintings informed men and women of sin

Sexual intercourse was part of God's original plan. If Adam and Eve had not eaten the apple- a sin of pride- they would have had intercourse. Otherwise how would they have obeyed God's order to increase and multiply (Genesis 1: 27-8) ? By this rationale, if women chose to be virgins in paradise they would have been thwarting God's intentions. It was, therefore, after the 'fall' that the concept of lust crept in and, thereafter,became the problem for the medieval Church; not sex. If lust was not controlled it could lead to eternal damnation. The only legitimate outlet for sex was marriage. 'Marriage was ordained by God. Monasticism,' writes historian Henrietta Leyser, 'was instituted by man.'

This gave rise to the idea of mutual conjugal debt. St Paul wrote, 'Let the husband render to his wife what is her due, and likewise the wife to her husband.' It does not take much imagination for us as we glance backwards from the perspective of a more liberated 21st century to see the problems this presented for women.
The Medieval Woman

Two main medical theories about sexual differences existed during the medieval period. Galen said that female anatomy corresponded to that of a man. This theory also suggested that women must ejaculate her seed for there to be conception but could not conceive without enjoying intercourse. It seems on a first reading, egalitarian. Yet, what does this theory suggest for the medieval woman who conceives a child after a rape? However, just as unfair, Aristotle saw women as defective males with the male anatomy turned inside out. Women were perceived as the 'weaker vessel.'

The Weaker Vessel

Male seed was precious. It could not be wasted. Female seed was dangerous so women must purge themselves of bodily excesses. Menstruation was a part of this. Intercourse was also part of the purging process. Obviously not when a woman had her menses.

It was thought that women's seed and menstrual blood were dangerous to everyone and everything. It could turn wine sour, destroy crops. It could kill off bees and dogs tasting it could get rabbies. Even gazing at a menstruating woman might have dire consequences. Another theory comes into play here.

Health during the medieval period was all about balancing humors. This theory had been taught by Hippocrates and was inherited from Ancient Greece. The medieval believed that there were in existence four humors that must be in a state of balance. These were four elements: fire, air, earth and water. Three categories corresponded to these: heat, cold, dryness and moisture. Then the bodily humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm; third the temperaments: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic. Men and women were different. Men were hotter than women. They had physiological and moral superiority. Women had a lack of heat which made for physical weakness and untrustworthy nature. Women were more sexually greedy than men because their cold uteruses were in need of having hot semen to warm the uterus.
Wikipedia, The Four Humors

In the Trotula, a Medieval Compendium of Women's Medicine written in Salerno in the 12th C we find that this defect was considered a sign of a less perfect life form. 'Women were unable to concoct ( cook) their ingredients as thoroughly as men.' ( Introduction). Men were able to exude residues through sweat and the growth of facial hair. Women, however, would accumulate excess materials from their bodies and this could lead to disease, an humoral imbalance. This imbalance was menstruation.

Menses became called a woman's flowers because trees without their flowers will not bear fruit. Women without their flowers will be deprived of offspring. Menstrual blood works like a tree. Before bearing fruit a tree must bear its first flowers. Nature had in effect established a purgation to temper woman's poverty of heat. Thus the 'flowers'. It was a vernacular term for menstruation used by rich and poor.

Childbirth was risky. It was believed that saints dispensed their favours equally between men and women. Mothers in the course of difficult labours would offer prayers to the Virgin and to Saints. St Margaret, a saint who was swallowed and spat out by a dragon, had unrivalled powers of empathy with the process of labour. During their ordeal women, surrounded by midwives, might seek comfort by listening to readings from her life.

Childbirth came to rich and poor, the village and the castle alike.

Girdles, known as birth girdles, were popular aids to birthing. As early as the 11th C Bald's Leechbook suggests that in a case of difficult labour a woman would put prayers upon her girdle to help ease the birth. At Westminster Abbey the monks guarded the Virgin's own girdle which had been given to them by Edward the Confessor. It was loaned out for aristocratic and royal births.

Image of St Margaret

So, Heaven, Hell, Saints, God's Will, were all notions that permeated the medieval mind. These were ideas that also existed in a misogynist society. As regards sex and motherhood, women were the 'weaker vessel.'

To read more I suggest:

Medieval Women, Henrietta Leyser, 1995, Phoenix Press.
The Trotula, edited and translated by Monica H.Green, 2002, University of Pennsylvania Press.

There is much on this subject in my new novel The Swan-Daughter to be published by Accent Press on 18th September 2014 as an e book and in December 2014 as a paperback.   

Thursday, 1 May 2014

Sarah Bower on The Art of Writing

A big thank you to Carol McGrath for inviting me to join this blog hop and for hosting my post. So, relay baton in hand, here I go…

What are you working on at the moment? 

I’m lucky enough to be writer in residence in the English Department of Lingnan University in Hong Kong until June. While I do have a teaching commitment, the university has been incredibly generous in giving me a lot of time to write. 
I’m currently working on a novel entitled Love Can Kill People, Can’t It? (and thank you to the totally cool Magnetic Fields for the title) which has three story lines covering life in England and Palestine from 1948 to 2008. Its principals are an Englishwoman with a mysterious past which is revealed to her when she inherits a house on the North Yorkshire coast, and a Palestinian terrorist. The woman’s mother and an artisan baker also play key roles. The chronology is complicated and none of the relationships works out quite the way you think it will. I am trying, with this book, to walk the tightrope of reproducing a sense of the randomness of life’s connections and coincidences while still constructing a coherent narrative.
There are many challenges for me in writing this book. Perhaps, to date, I’ve had the most fun overcoming my ignorance about commercial bread-baking, when the Pump Street Bakery in Orford kindly allowed me to work a shift alongside their bakers. (And fresh-baked doughnuts for breakfast at 4am after a long night kneading dough is possibly the closest to heaven I shall ever get!) My next challenge will be a visit to Palestine in October when I shall be working on the olive harvest as part of the Zaytoun Project Of course, the history of modern Palestine is so well documented one hardly knows where to begin - and in the news again as we speak, with the Hamas-Fatah agreement - but a chance to visit the country, to stay with local villagers and share their lives, if only for a couple of weeks, will be invaluable to me as a writer in helping me to grasp what is pretty much ineffable about the atmosphere of a place - its smells and tastes, sounds and colours.
As part of my role at Lingnan, I’m also working on a contemporary adaptation of Beauty and the Beast for a class of eight to eleven year olds to perform and a paper on fashion in vampire novels for a forthcoming conference on fiction and fashion, and I’m preparing a review of Minae Mizumura’s A True Novel for the e-zine Asian Cha.
My third novel, Erosion, was published on April 28th.
My short story, Restoration, will be published in Unthology 5 in June.

Sarah wrote Erosion under a pseudo-name

How does your work differ from others of its genre? 

Well, I don’t write in any single genre. My two historical novels, The Needle in the Blood and The Book of Love (published in the US as Sins of the House of Borgia), have been variously described as literary fiction and historical romance! My latest book, Erosion is a contemporary literary thriller. I’ve described Love Can Kill People, Can’t It? in answer to the previous question, so I’ll leave it to readers of this blog to define it for themselves.
To be honest, and I think most writers would agree with me here, genre seems to me to be a marketing concept rather than any useful way of defining or describing a work of fiction. When, for example, my US publisher wanted to re-title The Book of Love, I was
uncomfortable because Sins of the House of Borgia gives, to my mind, a misleading impression of what that book is actually about, but they were insistent because they believed it would make the book more marketable. Well, they were right, so I bow to their superior selling skills and take the royalties cheques.

Why do I write what I do?

Simple. My head would explode if I didn’t. I don’t choose what I write, it chooses me.
How does my writing process work?
If I knew that, it might take me less than three years to write a novel!
I am an intuitive writer. The only novel for which I have made a detailed plan was Erosion because it is, on one level, a crime novel and therefore involves elements of puzzle solving, for which you must first construct your puzzle. I undertook the novel as something of an academic exercise, to see if I could do it. It will be for readers to judge if I succeeded, of course! I never usually know where a novel will end, I just have to follow my nose until I get there.
It’s much the same for my short fiction. Some ideas come to me as short stories, some as novels, and I have no real idea why this happens except, I suppose, that the short story form is more fitted to examining a moment, a mood, a single, intense crisis or realisation in a life, and the novel is more a series of actions and consequences.

As for the actual, physical process, let me give you a little glimpse of how I’m writing now. I’m sitting at my table in my apartment on Hong Kong’s Gold Coast. It’s a relatively cool day today, so I have the balcony door open rather than the air conditioner blaring. Birds are singing - black and white robins, spotted doves and something that sounds like a football referee blowing his whistle which I haven’t yet been able to identify. Mimosa is just coming into flower, as is hibiscus and bauhinia. The sea is a still, metallic blue and the mountains on the other side of the bay have that misty, Bali Hai look I shall forever associate with the South China Sea (while not reminding myself it probably derives from the factories in Shenzen rather than any mysteries of the Oriental climate). At this precise moment, I’m probably one of the luckiest writers on the planet…so let’s leave it there, shall we?

As the next writer to be featured in the blog hop, I’d like to introduce Karen Ma, author of Excess Baggage, a wonderful ‘true novel’ about the consequences for one family of living through the Maoist era in China.

Karen Ma is a Chinese-American author and journalist based in Beijing.  Originally born in China, Ma spent her formative years in Hong Kong and Japan, before earning an M.A. degree in Chinese language and literature from the University of Washington.  During her 20 plus years living in Japan and China, Ma worked as a journalist for the Daily Yomiuri, Kyodo News and NHK Radio Japan.  She also wrote for many international publications,
New York Newsday, International Herald Tribune, More Magazine, the Japan Times, South China Morning Post and the New Delhi-based Mint.
Ma’s most recent book is Excess Baggage, a semi-autobiographical novel based loosely on her family’s experience as Chinese immigrants living in Tokyo during the post bubble years of 1990s, published by San Francisco-based China Books in 2013.

Ma is the author of the non-fiction book, Modern Madam Butterfly: Fantasy and Reality of Japanese Cross-cultural Relationships, published in 1996 by Charles E. Tuttle.

Sunday, 27 April 2014

The Swan-Daughter and the Art of Writing

Justin Hill has invited me to take part in a WIP (work in progress) Blog Tour. Justin is an award winning travel writer and early medieval expert. His book Shield Wall, set in the years  before 1066, is a must read if you like this era. Shield Wall was highly praised by The Times and was included in a Sunday Times best of 2012 selection. You can find Justin's writing process story here:

What are you Working On?

I am frequently asked this question. Well, the answer is several projects. The most important of these is the final copy edit for The Swan-Daughter. That is in the hands of my editor now, but I shall be checking the proofs this May.

The Swan-Daughter is the second novel in the Daughters of Hastings trilogy which unusually presents the year 1066 and its aftermath from the point of view of the noble Godwin women. The Handfasted Wife was shortlisted for the Romantic Novel of the Year- Historical Fiction, and has been consistently high on amazon UK and USA ratings since publication last year.

A story it like a coffer filled with treasures

The Handfasted Wife tells Edith Swan-Neck's story. She was Harold's common-law wife.  Although her marriage to him was legal he sat her aside in 1066 for a political alliance. She  was mother to  six of Harold's surviving children who all have interesting stories. I continue with The Swan-Daughter. Although connected to The Handfasted Wife and, even though, familiar characters do reappear in it, The Swan-Daughter is a stand alone novel. The novel tells the story of Gunnhild, the younger daughter. It tells of an extraordinary true romance which begins in 1075 after Queen Edith, the dowager queen and wife to Edward the Confessor, dies and Gunnhild elopes from Wilton Abbey with Count Alan of Richmond. Not only did Gunnhild elope with Count Alan, but, interestingly, she became involved with his brother. The Swan-Daughter presents a tapestry of women's lives during the post Conquest decades, a nod to emergent Anglo-Norman romance literature, and the effects of Domesday on the North during its conception in1086. The Swan-Daughter will be published this summer just as The Handfasted Wife is placed on wide distribution in UK and US bookshops. I am now working on the first draft of The Betrothed Sister, the story of King Harold's daughter Gita's (Thea in the book) exile in Denmark following The Siege of Exeter in 1068, her betrothal and her marriage to Vladimir, Prince of Kiev.

Part of The Swan-Daughter takes place in Normandy and Brittany

  Whilst it is unusual to write about 1066 and its aftermath from the point of view of the noble women, it is equally unusual to write about them in the wider context of Europe especially contemporary Denmark, Russia and Brittany. Sweyn Estridson, King of Denmark was the last Danish viking king and the first Danish medieval ruler. I have enjoyed researching them all but particularly The Betrothed Sister since Russian Studies was my first degree along with Medieval History. For me, writing historical fiction is primarily about story writing. Even though the story comes out of my research creating an exciting narrative is the most important element of my writing process. I diligently research and I stick to facts where I find these but this is the world of fiction, so I am compelled to 'invent' to bring characters to life with a good story as well as a replicated historical world.

The Angst and Joys of Writing a Novel

Here is my usual method for novel writing. I plan an outline before I begin a novel. The novels are character driven so I first write sketches of my main characters using a mix of what I can discover in annals and chronicles and my own imagination. As Hilary Mantel says a story is a series of scenes held together by a plot. Characters do tend to take on their own life in scenes and I have rein their behavior in. However, I might change things to suit these personalities as I write. Even if a plan is flexible and even organic it is all important for me to know where the story ends before I write it.

My research library is extensive, yet I can often be found amongst the shelves of Oxford's Bodleian Library. Writing an historical novel set so far back in The Middle Ages during a period of great change involves a subtle balancing act of fact and fiction. I aim to recapture the 'atmosphere' of the 11thC in a particular place and time. This means excavation and a later burial as information is concealed within a character or scene. At the moment I am getting a picture of Danish and Rus palaces during 11thC. I tend to keep detailed, clearly labelled notebooks with information. Before I write the words Chapter One I set out three parts to my plan and divide it roughly into chapters. This approach is just a variation on three acts. There is much to learn from film scripting techniques.

 I sit at my computer most days and aim for 1k words but often write less and sometimes  resort to pen and paper. Each session I revisit my previous session and correct things, aiming to get as good a first draft as possible. I also stop to check the historical background such as eating habits, sleeping habits, clothing, towns, fortresses, palaces, countryside, transportation and so on. Mine is a deceptively simple process but it works.

The first draft is set aside for a while and then it is worked on further, many times before my editor sees it. Angst and joy as I complete a book. And, as ever, I am interested in how other writers work.

May I Introduce:

I would like to introduce three writers whose books I admire:

Sarah Bower

'Sarah Bower is a novelist and short story writer. Her first novel, THE NEEDLE IN THE BLOOD, was nominated for the Orange Prize for Fiction. Her second, SINS OF THE HOUSE OF BORGIA, has been translated into nine languages and was an international bestseller. Her third, EROSION, will be published later this year. Her short fiction has been read on Radio 4 and has appeared in a wide range of magazines and anthologies. Sarah is currently writer in residence at Lingnan University in Hong Kong.’ Actually Erosion is published today 28th April. Congratulations, Sarah.
Sarah will write about her working practice, guesting here on Monday 5th May. Do look then.

 Rebecca Hazell

Rebecca Hazell holds an honours BA from the University of California at Santa Cruz in Russian history. She has written educational filmstrips, designed award-winning needlepoint canvases, designed science craft kits for children, and published award-winning nonfiction books for children. She has just completed a historical trilogy set in the thirteenth century.
She lives with her husband on beautiful Vancouver Island near their two adult children. She is a senior teacher in the Shambhala Buddhist tradition.

Rebecca Hazell

Rebecca's first novel in The Grip of God is titled The Tiger and the Dove.

Rebecca will tell us about her writing and research for The Grip of God and especially her second novel now published Solomon's Bride on her blog on 5th May. Do look here. 

Geoffrey Gudgion

saxons bane mockup

Geoffrey Gudgion left school at 17 to join the Royal Navy, and was later sponsored by the RN to read Geography at Cambridge. His sense of place began there. A subsequent, business career proved incompatible with writing, and after one row with his boss he stepped off the corporate ladder. His debut novel, Saxon’s Bane, is a thriller with a supernatural twist and was released in 2013 to widespread critical acclaim. He is now finishing his second book. You will find Geoffrey's write up on Monday 5th May on his website.

I hope my readers have enjoyed this article about writing and that you will look next week for the writers I have introduced. They will discuss their writing practice on their blogs and Sarah Bower here: www.scribbling-inthemargins.blogspot.

Find out more about me on my website :




Friday, 14 March 2014

A Visit to The British Museum

The Viking Exhibition at the British Museum is a must see for anyone interested in or who, like myself, is researching the era. It is huge. At the moment the exhibition is inundated with visitors but  even so it is still possible to enjoy all of the displays. My particular research interest is focused on early medieval Denmark and Russia.

Thea ( from Wikipedia)

The Godwin ladies are in exile. Countess Gytha, King Harold II's mother was aunt to the King of Denmark, Swein Erithson, and it is most likely that she travelled there with her grandsons and her grand-daughter. It is recorded in chronicle that Swein of Denmark harboured Harold's sons and that he brokered a grand marriage for Gytha's grand-daughter with one of the triumvirate of princes in medieval Russia. This was not an unusual alliance. The mother of the Aethling Eagar was Agatha a daughter of the Grand Prince of Kiev, Iaroslav. Elizaveta of Kiev, another daughter, was married first of all to Harald Harthrada and after his death at Stamford Bridge to Swein Erithson of Denmark. The ruling Rus of the 11thC were also of Viking descent. Consequently there is much of interest from 11th and 12th C Rus in this exhibition. By the 11th C the kingdom of the Rus was culturally a mix of Viking and Byzantine influence. Importantly during its golden age, the Rus cities controlled important trade routes east. Medieval Kiev was stinking rich!

Vladimir the Great of the Rus
(the great grandfather who Christianised the Rus)

 My third novel in The Daughters of Hastings Trilogy concerns King Harold's eldest daughter Gytha, called Thea in the novel to avoid confusion with her grandmother. She was married to Vladimir of Kiev circa 1073. Vladimir, like Thea, was born in 1053. In his later life became one of the most famous of the Rus princes of The Golden Age of Kiev and the Rus cities. These Rus princes never took the title of king but there was an interesting succession arrangement in place which allowed the succession of a son on the death of his father only if his father had been a High Prince himself. Disputes and jealousy followed. This caused two major periods of internecine conflict. The second major conflict occurred during the 1070s. What a situation for Princess Thea to arrive into when she travels to Norgorod to meet her prince and then faces delay to her grand marriage after her proxy betrothal to young Vladimir some years earlier.
Yarapolk, image of Vladimir II's father
He was involved in internecine problems in Kiev

Vladimir's uncle, Iziaslav, was Grand Prince first in the 1050s, 60s and early 70s. He was forced to flee to Poland when his throne was contested in 1068 by a cousin, the son of the deceased eldest prince. This cousin did not succeed to the throne because of the Rus succession policy. The final straw came for the people of Kiev when Iziaslav was unsuccessful in repelling an attack from steppe nomads. They wasted no more time and instead threw him out and put Cousin Vseslav on the throne.  Iziaslav, undaunted, returned a few years later with a Polish army. Determined to avoid terrible reprisals, his two brothers travelled from their princely cities and accepted him back on the behalf of Kiev. Yet Iziaslav lost his throne again another time. Thanks to his brother Vladimir's father, he was allowed back after some tricky negotiations involving the second best city Chernigov.

medieval Novgorod from Wikipedia

When Iziaslav died in the late 1070s he was followed on the Kievian throne by the next living brother, Vladimir's other uncle, and then finally by Vladimir's own father, Vsevolod who was by then so failing in health that Vladimir took on the job of ruling. The senior princes were in charge of other Rus cities. For example, The Grand Prince's eldest son was always set up in Novgorod whilst the senior brother got Chernigov. The next in line got the outlying important and very wealthy city on the edge of the steppe, Periaslavl. At one stage in his life Vladimir was prince of Periaslavl as it had been his father's chief city.

medieval Kiev

So the Viking Exhibition has allowed me to understand just how closely this world was interlinked, how far traders travelled, the luxury goods that were their currency, the fabrics, the Frankish swords, the spices. It also had many beautiful artefacts from medieval Rus. The Norwegian Viking world was ended with the defeat of Harald Hathrada at Stamford Bridge. The Viking influence on England mostly disappears after the 1066 invasion of William of Normandy, of Viking descent himself. The old Viking influence in the lands of the Rus becomes absorbed into the fabulous Golden Age of Kiev and Novgorod, from the 10th to the 12th centuries. The Viking heritage leaves a marvellous legacy within both Ukraine, and indeed, Russia's early medieval world. The lands of the Kievian Rus become increasingly Byzantine, always cosmopolitan, absorbing new ideas and other cultures until the Tartar invasions of the mid thirteenth century.

Carol McGrath is the author of The Handfasted Wife published by Accent Press
The Swan-Daughter to be published in 2014
The Betrothed Sister to be published in 2015

visit my website for more information

Tuesday, 18 February 2014

Viking Ships

Last week I was in Iceland and whilst there took the opportunity to collect information about Viking ships for my third novel in The Daughters of Hastings Trilogy, The Betrothed Sister. It is my work in progress. The Swan-Daughter will be published this summer by Accent Press. By studying Viking ships and early medieval Iceland I was, in a general way, gathering information relevant to the early medieval world in coastal Northern Europe and beyond. In this novel King Harold's daughter Gytha and her grandmother of the same name travel into exile and Gytha (Thea) is betrothed to Vladimir of Kiev. The Vikings famously navigated European rivers especially in Russia where the Scandinavian countries had many links at the close of the Viking period in the late 11thC.

Viking ships are larger than you would think

View towards the stern
Effective means of transport and established routes fostered social and economic growth in Scandinavia and were essential for expansion overseas, for example Iceland, Greenland, Vinland briefly, and Russia. There was also the expansion into England and Normandy. We are inclined to forget that the two kings and the Duke who fought in September and October 1066 for the throne of England were of Scandinavian descent.

In battle

Adam of Bremen writing in 1075 points out that sailing routes around Scandinavia were the most efficient ways to travel from Denmark to Norway and Sweden, and through Russia via its rivers as far as the Black Sea. Ships are the symbol of the Viking Age. These ships have been found in England and in Slav regions south of the Baltic with relevant modifications. The ships which William the Conqueror, a Viking descendent ,himself, commanded to be built for his invasion of England in 1066 were of the same type.

View of the ship
War and travel ships were low and narrow relative to their length. Mostly they seem to have been constructed from oak or pine. Oar ports were distributed evenly along the ship's length with two to each space between the frames. It is possible therefore to estimate the numbers in a crew. When not in use the oar ports could be closed with flaps.  Along the length of the ship was a deck. The mast could easily be lowered and raised because of the design of the mast fish and the mast step. The first supported the mast at deck level and the second was fitted to the top of the keel, fastened to the frames by 'knees'. Thus the ship could be a combination of a sailing and rowing vessel and it could pass under low bridges, could move quickly if attacked and make speed with a wind over the ocean. This combination gave the ship greater manoeuvrability. And of course on the outside of the ship there was the shield-batten.

The shield-batten

Hull construction detail
Scandinavian poetry contains evocative descriptions of ships and fleets. When the king lets the ships run across the sea, says the skald/ poet Arnor, it is just as if the Heaven-Lord's crowd of angels were floating together across the waves.

Raven-Flokki, the second Norseman to arrive in Iceland

When I visited Vikingaheimar in Iceland a museum south of Reykjavik, I was able to walk on the replica of the ship that Leifr Ericsson reputedly used to cross the Atlantic in the 10th century and which was taken on a similar successful voyage in this century. There is no doubt , as the exhibitions in this museum tell us, that the Vikings were indeed the first Europeans to reach America. As for the ship it was marvellous. It was enormous and beautifully constructed. It also interestingly had a hold / crawl-space under the deck. That was a feature I had wondered about. After all, how did William of Normandy transport so much equipment including his ingenious pre-IKEA flatpack concept wooden fortifications which he quickly erected at Pevensey and Hastings? When one looks at the Tapestry it is easy to think that the ships were not so large. In truth they were actually huge!

Here are a few poetic lines from Egil's Saga, an Icelandic Saga, using ship imagery:

I have travelled on the sea-god's steed
a long and turbulent wave-path
to visit the one who sits
in command of the English land.
In great boldness, the shaker
of the wound-flaming sword
has met the mainstay
of King Harald's line.

sea-god's steed=ship
shaker of wound-flaming sword=warrior

Snorri as portrayed at the Saga Museum

Egil's Saga dates in manuscript form from 13thC but is attributed on stylistic grounds to Iceland's greatest medieval historian, Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241) who was a descendent of Egil.

Detail of the rigging

The Mast Fish 


The Vikings by Else Roesdahl

The Sagas of Icelanders published by Penguin Classics
The World of the Vikings at Vikingaheimar
The Saga Museum, Reykjavik.

The landmark statue of Leifr Ericsson in Reykjavik
A lot of bodies in one ship...